What is the cost of steel pipe?

Steel pipes are cylindrical tubes made from steel that are used many ways in manufacturing and infrastructure. They’re the most utilized product made by the the steel industry. The primary use of pipe is in the transport of liquid or gas underground—including oil, gas, and water. However, pipes of varying sizes are used throughout manufacturing and construction. A common household manufacturing example is the narrow steel pipe that runs the cooling system in fridges. Construction uses pipes for heating and plumbing. Structures can be built using steel pipe of varying sizes, such as handrails, bike racks, or pipe bollards.

304 Stainless Steel Pipe

SizeMin PriceMax Price
1/2 inchRs 195/KgRs 250/Kg
2 inchRs 185/KgRs 220/Kg
3 inchRs 195/KgRs 220/Kg

Steel pipes are used as construction piling, to support the weight of heavy buildings when the soil is too weak. It’s also used on the building itself and even its architectural design. Steel pipes are also used to construct ships, the ship yard where they’re kept, oil refineries and even space stations.Steel pipes are used as construction piling, to support the weight of heavy buildings when the soil is too weak. It’s also used on the building itself and even its architectural design. Steel pipes are also used to construct ships, the ship yard where they’re kept, oil refineries and even space stations.

It is an alloy made from Iron and Carbon. There are over 3,500 different types of steel,which can be separated into four groups depending on its chemical content or metal alloy contents.

Steel is an alloy but it is the level of impurities and elements such as nickel, magnesium, molybdenum, silicon, copper, vanadium that helps to determine the grade of each steel.

1. Carbon Steel

  • Carbon steels contain Iron, Carbon, and other alloying elements such as Manganese, Silicon, and Copper.
  • Carbon is, however, the main alloying constituent of carbon steels, which account for approximately 90 percent of all steel productions.
  • Carbon is the hardest element, which is why carbon steel products are also very hard. Varying the percentage of carbon produces steel with different qualities. However, higher carbon content often translates to stronger yet more brittle steel.
  • Depending on the level of carbon content, carbon steels can be classified into the following groups:
  • Mild or Low Carbon Steels, contain up to 0.32 %C
  • Medium Carbon Steels, containing 0.30-0.59 %C
    High Carbon Steels, known to contain over 0.6-0.99 %C
  • Ultra-high Carbon Steels that usually contain about 1.0–2.0 %C
  • Also known as Wrought Iron, low carbon steel is the commonest and most cost effective form. It is easy to work, making it suitable for decorative products like lamp posts and fencing.
  • As one of the stronger variants, medium carbon steel is often used to forge large structural applications and automotive components while high-carbon steel is mostly used for high-strength wires and springs.
  • Also known as Cast Iron, ultra-high carbon steel is the hardest form of them all and often used for knives, axles, punches and other special purposes. Since carbon steels do not contain chromium, they tend to corrode faster than almost every other type of steels.

2. Alloy Steels

  • Alloy steels contain common alloy metals in varying proportions, which makes this type of steel suitable for specific applications.
  • These alloy metals include aluminum, manganese, nickel, titanium, silicon, copper, and chromium, the addition of which produces properties that are different from those found in regular carbon steels.
  • When added, alloying elements can change properties like strength, ductility, formability, hardenability, and ability to resist corrosion.
  • For instance, stainless steel is produced by adding chromium and nickel whereas the addition of aluminum results in a more uniform appearance.
  • On the other hand, the addition of manganese is known to make steel extremely hard and strong.
  • Alloy steels can have diverse mechanical properties due to the broad range of compositions possible.Because of these properties, alloys steels serve a broad range of applications including the manufacture of pipelines, transformers, auto parts, electric motors and power generators.

3. Tool Steels

  • This type of steel is alloyed at very high temperatures and often contains hard metals like tungsten, cobalt, molybdenum and vanadium. Since they are not only heat resistant but also durable, tool steels are often used for cutting and drilling equipment.
  • Even so, there are various types of tools steels, each containing varying quantities of different alloy metals. As a result, each type of tool steel offers a different level of heat resistance and durability.

4. Stainless Steels

Although stainless steels comprise of several metal alloys, they usually contain 10-20 percent chromium, making it the primary alloying element. Compared to the other forms of steel, stainless steels are approximately 200 times more resistant to rusting, especially the types that contain at least 11 percent chromium. As a result, stainless steel is highly valued for its ability to resist corrosion. Based on their crystalline structure, stainless steels fall into one of the following categories:

Austenitic steels

  • Although austenitic steels contain trace amounts of nickel (eight percent) and carbon (0.08 percent), they are high in chromium. In general, austenitic steels have a chromium content of about 18 percent.
  • With applications like the manufacture of pipes, kitchen utensils, and food processing equipment, austenitic steels are the most commonly used type of stainless steel. Even though austenitic steels are not responsive to heat treatments, they are valued for their non-magnetic properties.

Ferritic steels

  • Apart from containing trace amounts of nickel, less than 0.1 percent carbon, and about 12-17 percent chromium, ferritic steels usually contain alloy metals like molybdenum, aluminum or titanium in small quantities.
  • Ferritic steels are magnetic, tough, and very strong. However, cold working can be used to strengthen them further. Unfortunately, they are not responsive to heat treatment, meaning no heating technique can be used to harden them.

Martensitic steels

  • In addition to containing moderate amounts of carbon (about 1.2 percent) and nickel (less than 0.4 percent), martensitic steels contain 11-17 percent chromium.
  • Aside from having magnetic properties, martensitic steels are also responsive to heat treatments. This type is mainly used to make dental and surgical equipment, blades, knives, and several other cutting tools.

Stainless Steels have the ability to withstand most of the wear and tear caused by everyday use, making them highly durable. Additionally, an invisible layer of chromium serves to prevent oxidation, making stainless steels resistant to scratches and corrosion.

Steel grades standards by country

  • For alloys in general (including steel), unified numbering system (UNS) of ASTM International and the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE).
  • American steel grades : AISI/SAE steel grades standard
  • British Standards
  • International Organization for Standardization ISO/TS 4949:2003
  • European standards – EN 10027
  • Japanese steel grades : Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) standard and NK standard
  • Germany steel grades : DIN standard
  • China steel grades : GB standard
  • Czech steel grades : ČSN standard
  • Russia steel grades : GOST standard
  • Spain steel grades : UNE standard
  • France steel grades : AFNOR standard
  • Italy steel grades : UNI standard
  • Sweden steel grades : SIS standard
  • Norway steel grades : DNV standard
    Note that an increasing number of national European standards (DIN, AFNOR, UNE, UNI, etc.) and UK standards are being withdrawn and replaced by European Standards (EN). This task is carried out by the Comité Européen de Normalisation (CEN) (European Committee for Standardization).

European standard steel grades

European standard steel grade names fall into two categories:

Steel specified by purpose of use and mechanical properties.
Steel specified by chemical composition.
The inclusion of a letter ‘G’ before the code indicates the steel is specified in the form of a casting.

Category 1

Basic grade designations for category 1 steels consist of a single letter (designating application) then a number signifying the mechanical property (often yield strength) dictated in the standard for that application designation. For some application designations another letter is included before the property value, this number is used to indicate any special requirements or conditions. These additional letters and values depend entirely on the application of the steel and are specified in the standard and far too numerous to mention here.

The next set of 3 digits gives the steel’s minimum yield strength. So S355 has a minimum yield strength of 355 MPa for the smallest thickness range covered by the relevant standard – i.e. EN10025.

Below is a table indicating the most common application codes.

Application symbolMeaningMechanical PropertyDetails
SStructural steelMinimum Yield Strength 
PSteel for pressure lines and vesselsMinimum Yield Strength 
LSteel for pipe and tubeMinimum Yield Strength 
EEngineering steelsMinimum Yield Strength 
BSteel for reinforced concreteCharacteristic Yield Case 
RSteel for rail useMinimum Yield Case 
HHigh Tensile Strength Flat productsMinimum Yield CaseIf followed by T then the given mechanical property is minimum tensile strength
DFlat Products for Cold Forming Followed by C, D or X and two numbers characterising steel
TTinmill ProductsNominal Yield Case 
MElectrical Steel Number = 100 × specific loss in W/kg

Number = 100 × nom thick in mm

Letter for type of product (A, K, P or S[3])

Additional symbols

In addition to the above category codes there are symbols that can be added to the grade code to identify any additional compositional requirements, delivery conditions, mechanical properties, &c. These values depend solely on the type/application code given in the first part of the code and are so numerous as to be impossible to indicate here. Additional symbols are separated from the main code by the plus sign (+).

The most common additional symbols are the impact and temperature codes for structural steels, category 1 – Sxxx.

Impact ResistanceTemperature
Impact
code
Testing
strength
Temperature
code
Testing
temperature
J27 JRRoom temperature
K40 JO0 °C
L60 J2-20 °C
 3-30 °C
4-40 °C
5-50 °C
6-60 °C

Delivery condition codes are also relatively common, the most common being:

CodeCondition
AAnnealed
QTQuenched and tempered
NNormalised
SRStress relieved
CCold worked
UUntreated

Electrical steel type of product letters (bold are most recent version 2016):

CodeMaximum specific loss

expressed for magnetic induction

Type of product
A1.5T @50Hznon oriented
D (formerly B)non-alloy semi-finished (not finally annealed)
Ealloy semi-finished (not finally annealed)
K (=D+E)non-alloy and alloy electrical steel sheet/strip in the semi-processed state
Nfor normal grain oriented products
P1.7T @50Hzhigh permeability grain oriented
Sconventional grain oriented

European standard steel number

In addition to the descriptive steel grade naming system indicated above, within EN 10027-2 is defined a system for creating unique steel grade numbers. While less descriptive and intuitive than the grand names they are easier to tabulate and use in data processing applications.

The number is in the following format: x.yyzz(zz)
Where x is the material type (only 1 is specified so far), yy is the steel group number (specified in EN10027-2) and zz(zz) is a sequential number designated by the certifying body, the number in brackets being unused but reserved for later use.

The steel groups are indicated below:

The steel groups are indicated below:

CodeType
Non-alloy steels
00 & 90Basic steels
0x & 9xQuality steels
1xSpecial steels
Alloy steels
2xTool steels
3xMiscellaneous steels
4xStainless and heat resistant steels
5x – 8xStructural, pressure vessel and engineering steels
08 & 98Special physical properties
09 & 99Other purpose steels

The current certification body is the VDEh in Düsseldorf, Germany.

Comparisons

Below is a table comparing steel grades from different grading systems.

Comparison of steel grades by chemistry

EN steel number
(Europe)
EN steel name
(Europe)
ASTM grade
(USA)
AISI/SAE grade
(USA)
UNS
(USA)
DIN
(Germany)
BS
(UK)
UNI
(Italy)
JIS
(Japan)
Carbon steels
1.1141
1.0401
1.0453
C15D
C18D
 1010
1018
 CK15
C15
C16.8
040A15
080M15
080A15
EN3B
C15
C16
1C15
S12C
S15
S15CK
S15C
1.0503
1.1191
1.1193
1.1194
C45 1045 C45
CK45
CF45
CQ45
060A47
080A46
080M46
C45
1C45
C46
C43
S45C
S48C
1.0726
1.0727
35S20
45S20
 1140/1146 35S20
45S20
212M40
En8M
  
1.0715
1.0736
11SMn37 1215 9SMn28
9SMn36
230M07
En1A
CF9SMn28
CF9SMn36
SUM 25
SUM 22
1.0718
1.0737
11SMnPb30
11SMnPb37
 12L14 9SMnPb28
9SMnPb36
230M07 Leaded
En1B Leaded
CF9SMnPb29
CF9SMnPb36
SUM 22
SUM 23
SUM 24
Alloy steels
1.7218  4130 25CrMo4
GS-25CrMo4
708A30
CDS110
25CrMo4 (KB)
30CrMo4
SCM 420
SCM 430
SCCrM1
1.7223
1.7225
1.7227
1.3563
42CrMo4 4140/4142 41CrMo4
42CrMo4
42CrMoS4
43CrMo4
708M40
708A42
709M40
En19
En19C
41CrMo4
38CrMo4 (KB)
G40 CrMo4
42CrMo4
SCM 440
SCM 440H
SNB 7
SCM 4M
SCM 4
1.6582
1.6562
34CrNiMo6 4340 34CrNiMo6
40NiCrMo8-4
817M40
En24
35NiCrMo6 (KB)
40NiCrMo7 (KB)
SNCM 447
SNB24-1-5
1.6543
1.6523
20NiCrMo2-2 8620 21NiCrMo22
21NiCrMo2
805A20
805M20
20NiCrMo2SNCM 200 (H)
1.541516Mo3A240 A/B/C K12822
K12320
K12020
K11820
15Mo31503-243B
240
243
15Mo3
16Mo3
STBA12
Stainless steels
1.4310X10CrNi18-8 301S30100    
1.4318X2CrNiN18-7 301LN     
1.4305X8CrNiS18-9 303S30300X10CrNiS18-9303S 31
En58M
X10CrNiS18-09SUS 303
1.4301X2CrNi19-11
X2CrNi18-10
 304S30400X5CrNi18-9
X5CrNi18-10
XCrNi19-9
304S 15
304S 16
304S 18
304S 25
En58E
X5CrNi18-10SUS 304
SUS 304-CSP
1.4306X2CrNi19-11 304LS30403 304S 11 SUS304L
1.4311X2CrNiN18-10 304LNS30453    
1.4948[citation needed]X6CrNi18-11 304HS30409    
1.4303[citation needed]X5CrNi18-12 305S30500    
1.4401
1.4436
X5CrNiMo17-12-2
X5CrNiMo18-14-3
 316S31600X5CrNiMo17 12 2
X5CrNiMo17 13 3
X5CrNiMo 19 11
X5CrNiMo 18 11
316S 29
316S 31
316S 33
En58J
X5CrNiMo17 12
X5CrNiMo17 13
X8CrNiMo17 13
SUS 316
SUS316TP
1.4404X2CrNiMo17-12-2 316LS31603 316S 11 SUS316L
1.4406
1.4429
X2CrNiMoN17-12-2
X2CrNiMoN17-13-3
 316LNS31653    
1.4571  316TiS31635X6CrNiMoTi17-12320S 33  
1.4438X2CrNiMo18-15-4 317LS31703    
1.4541  321S32100X6CrNiTi18-10321S 31 SUS321
1.4848GX40CrNiSi25-20A351 HK40 J94204SEW 595 GX40CrNiSi25-20310C40 SCH22
1.4859GX10NiCrSiNb32-20  N08151GX10NiCrSiNb32-20   
1.4878,[citation needed]X12CrNiTi18-9
X8CrNiTi18-10
 321HS32109    
1.4906X7CrNiNb18-10 347HS34709    
1.4512[citation needed]X6CrTi12 409S40900   SUH409
   410S41000    
1.4016  430S43000X6Cr17430S 17 SUS430
   440AS44002    
1.4112[citation needed]  440BS44003    
1.4125[citation needed]  440CS44004X105CrMo17  SUS440C
1.4104  430FS44020X14CrMoS17  SUS430F
1.4057X17CrNi16-2 431 XS43100X16CrNi16431S 29 SUS431
1.542316Mo5A335 P14520
4419H
4419
K1152216Mo5  STPA12
1.771514MoV6-3A335 P2 K1154714MoV6-3660 STPA20
1.7335
1.7338
13CrMo4-5
10CrMo5-5
A335 P11 K11597   STPA23
1.7375
1.7380
1.7383
10CrMo9-10
11CrMo9-10
12CrMo9-10
A335 P22 K2159017175 10CrMo910  STPA24
1.7362
1.7366
X11CrMo5
X12CrMo5
12CrMo19-5
A335 P5501
502
K41545
S50100
S50200
   STPA25
1.7386X11CrMo9-1
X12CrMo9-1
A335 P9503S50400
S50488
K90941
   STPA26
1.4903X10CrMoVNbN9-1A335 P91 K91560X10CrMoVNbN9-1   
1.4905
1.4906
X11CrMoWVNb9-1-1
X12CrMoWVNbN10-1-1
A335 P92 K92460X11CrMoWVNb9-1-1
X12CrMoWVNbN10-1-1
   
1.4539X1NiCrMoCu25-20-5 904LN08904    
1.4547X1CrNiMoCuN20-18-7  S31254    
1.4565  NIT50S20910    
   NIT60S21800    
Tool steels
1.2363X100CrMoV5 A-2T30102X100CrMoV51BA 2X100CrMoV5-1 KUSKD 12
   A-3T30103    
   A-4T30104    
   A-6T30106    
   A-7T30107    
   A-8T3010    
   A-9T30109    
1.2365X32CrMoV3-3
32CrMoV12-28
 H10T20810X32CrMoV3-3
32CrMoV12-28
  SKD 7
1.2379X153CrMoV12 D-2 X153CrMoV12-1BD 2X155CrVMo12-1SKD 11
1.2510  O-1 100MnCrW4Bo 195MnWCr-5 KU

American Petroleum Institute (API) steel grades

Color coding

In order to clearly distinguish the steel grade, tubing, casing and its coupling should be painted with color codes respectively. Color bands should be painted on tubing and casing body longer than 600mm to either end. The whole outer-body of the coupling needs to be painted color and then color codes

 Steel GradeCouplingTubular Body
API Tubing and CasingH40NoneNone or black band at the manufacturer’s option
J55all green.one green band
K55all greentwo green bands
N80-1all redone red band
N80-Qall red + one green bandone red band + one green band
L80-1all red + one brown bandone red band + one brown band
L80-9Crcolorless + two yellow bandsone red band + one brown band + two yellow bands
L80-13Crcolorless + one yellow bandone red band + one brown band + one yellow band
C90-1all purpleone purple band
T95-1all silverone silver band
C110all white + two brown bandsone white band + two brown bands
P110all whiteone white band
Q125all orangeone orange band

API 5B and 5CT provide various steel grades and color codes of each grade, offering detailed and overall information of casing and tubing, which help you clearly pick out the most suitable products for different well application.

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